For about two years now, most renewable energy projects, particularly wind farm projects, have been financed using a so-called “hybrid” model, i.e. a combination of medium-term bank debt and long-term financing or private placements.
The term “hybrid” is derived from the vocabulary of the Public-Private Partnerships industry, particularly projects involving an operational and maintenance component as part of a long-term concession. Indeed, during the construction phase, these projects generally involve a bank construction loan with a term of 2 to 5 years, combined with a long-term bond issue. In most cases, the bank financing is to be repaid upon project completion by payments from the Public Authority, while the bond financing is amortized over the duration of the project’s operational phase.
Until not so long ago, renewable energy projects were financed through one of two different models: medium-term bank financing of 5 to 7 years, or more rarely 10 years (i.e. “mini-perm financing”), or long-term financing (or a private placement) whose term was as close as possible to the term of the power purchase agreement — generally 18 to 20 years.
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